A smart pipe energy harvester excited by fluid flow and base excitation
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This paper presents an electromechanical dynamic modelling of the partially smart pipe structure subject to the vibration responses from fluid flow and input base excitation for generating the electrical energy. We believe that this work shows the first attempt to formulate a unified analytical approach of flow-induced vibrational smart pipe energy harvester in application to the smart sensor-based structural health monitoring systems including those to detect flutter instability. The arbitrary topology of the thin electrode segments located at the surface of the circumference region of the smart pipe has been used so that the electric charge cancellation can be avoided. The analytical techniques of the smart pipe conveying fluid with discontinuous piezoelectric segments and proof mass offset, connected with the standard AC–DC circuit interface, have been developed using the extended charge-type Hamiltonian mechanics. The coupled field equations reduced from the Ritz method-based weak form analytical approach have been further developed to formulate the orthonormalised dynamic equations. The reduced equations show combinations of the mechanical system of the elastic pipe and fluid flow, electromechanical system of the piezoelectric component, and electrical system of the circuit interface. The electromechanical multi-mode frequency and time signal waveform response equations have also been formulated to demonstrate the power harvesting behaviours. Initially, the optimal power output due to optimal load resistance without the fluid effect is discussed to compare with previous studies. For potential application, further parametric analytical studies of varying partially piezoelectric pipe segments have been explored to analyse the dynamic stability/instability of the smart pipe energy harvester due to the effect of fluid and input base excitation. Further proof between case studies also includes the effect of variable flow velocity for optimal power output, 3-D frequency response, the dynamic evolution of the smart pipe system based on the absolute velocity-time waveform signals, and DC power output-time waveform signals.
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