An introduction to glutamine metabolism
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© 2017 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Hlaziwetz and Habermann rst described glutamine as a molecule with biologically important properties in 1873. They suggested that the presence of ammonia (as NH4+), detected following hydrolysis of proteins, arose by degradation linked to amide groups from glutamine and asparagine (Mora 2012). About 10 years later, Schulze and Bosshard isolated glutamine from a natural source (beet juice), and Damodaran and his collaborators contributed to the rst description of glutamine metabolism. However, the number of studies investigating glutamine metabolism and links to intermediary metabolism increased following the early work of Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-1981), who was responsible for some of the most important discoveries in metabolic biochemistry and physiology in the twentieth century (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953).
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Cruzat, Vinicius; Rogero, M.; Keane, Kevin; Curi, R.; Newsholme, Philip (2018)© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater ...
Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exerciseCruzat, Vinicius; Rogero, M.; Tirapegui, J. (2010)In this study, we investigated the effect of the supplementation with the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine (DIP) and a solution containing L-glutamine and L-alanine on plasma levels markers of muscle damage and levels of ...
L-glutamine supplementations enhance liver glutamine-glutathione axis and heat shock factor-1 expression in endurance-exercise trained ratsPetry, E.; Cruzat, Vinicius; Heck, T.; De Bittencourt, P.; Tirapegui, J. (2015)Liver L-glutamine is an important vehicle for the transport of ammonia and intermediary metabolism of amino acids between tissues, particularly under catabolic situations, such as high-intensity exercise. Hence, the aim ...