Modern directions for potentiometric sensors
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This paper gives an overview of the newest developments of polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes. A short essence of the underlying theory is given, emphasizing how the electromotive force may be used to assess binding constants of the ionophore, and how the selectivity and detection limit are related to the basic membrane processes. The recent developments in lowering the detection limits of ISEs are described, including recent approaches of developing all solid state ISEs, and breakthroughs in detecting ultra-small quantities of ions at low concentrations. These developments have paved the way to use potentiometric sensors as in ultra-sensitive affinity bioanalysis in conjunction with nanoparticle labels. Recent results establish that potentiometry compares favorably to electrochemical stripping analysis. Other new developments with ion-selective electrodes are also described, including the concept of backside calibration potentiometry, controlled current coulometry, pulsed chronopotentiometry, and localized flash titration with ion-selective membranes to design sensors for the direct detection of total acidity without net sample perturbation. These developments have further opened the field for exciting new possibilities and applications.
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Veder, Jean-Pierre M. (2010)This thesis reports on a methodology for the nanocharacterization of complex electrochemical systems. A series of powerful techniques have been adapted and applied to studies of two scientifically important electrochemical ...
Bakker, Eric; Bhakthavatsalam, V.; Gemene, K. (2008)For about 100 years, potentiometry with ion-selective electrodes has been one of the dominating electroanalytical techniques. While great advances in terms of selective chemistries and materials have been achieved in ...
De Marco, Roland; Clarke, Graeme; Pejcic, B. (2007)This review will illustrate how it is possible to develop ion-selective electrode (ISE) methodologies that meet the stringent requirements (i.e., high selectivities and very low detection limits) for the analysis of ...