Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication
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Perovskite solar cell (PSCs) is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C) TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL). High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C) ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV) of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3) devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO) ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.
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