Life cycle sustainability assessment of alternative energy sources for the Western Australian transport sector
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© 2020 The Authors. Published by MDPI Publishing.
Environmental obligation, fuel security, and human health issues have fuelled the search for locally produced sustainable transport fuels as an alternative to liquid petroleum. This study evaluates the sustainability performance of various alternative energy sources, namely, ethanol, electricity, electricity-gasoline hybrid, and hydrogen, for Western Australian road transport using a life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework. The framework employs 11 triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability indicators and uses threshold values for benchmarking sustainability practices. A number of improvement strategies were devised based on the hotspots once the alternative energy sources failed to meet the sustainability threshold for the determined indicators. The proposed framework effectively addresses the issue of interdependencies between the three pillars of sustainability, which was an inherent weakness of previous frameworks. The results show that the environment-friendly and socially sustainable energy options, namely, ethanol-gasoline blend E55, electricity, electricity-E10 hybrid, and hydrogen, would need around 0.02, 0.14, 0.10, and 0.71 AUD/VKT of financial support, respectively, to be comparable to gasoline. Among the four assessed options, hydrogen shows the best performance for the environmental and social bottom line when renewable electricity is employed for hydrogen production. The economic sustainability of hydrogen fuel is, however, uncertain at this stage due to the high cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The robustness of the proposed framework warrants its application in a wide range of alternative fuel assessment scenarios locally as well as globally.
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Life cycle sustainability assessment of alternative energy sources for the Western Australian transport sectorHoque, N.; Biswas, W.; Mazhar, I.; Howard, Ian (2020)© 2020 by the authors. Environmental obligation, fuel security, and human health issues have fuelled the search for locally produced sustainable transport fuels as an alternative to liquid petroleum. This study evaluates ...
Hoque, Najmul; Biswas, Wahidul ; Mazhar, Ilyas ; Howard, Ian (2019)Alternative fuels for the transport sector are being emphasized due to energy security and environmental issues. Possible alternative fuel options need to be assessed to realize their potential to alleviate environmental ...
Hoque, N.; Biswas, Wahidul; Mazhar, I.; Howard, Ian (2019)Consideration of alternative transport fuels, produced from feedstocks and renewable resources, is inevitable to enhance energy security and alleviate environmental burdens. Whilst these fuels are apparently considered ...