Mild Cognitive Impairment: Implications of Diagnosis
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) reflects the interim stage between normal cognitive functioning and more severe and irreversible cognitive decline that can be associated with dementia. Prevalence estimates suggest 12% to 18% of older adults (>60 years) develop MCI . Risk factors for MCI include being male, older age, lower education level (i.e., lower cognitive reserve), diabetes and hypertension, apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 genotype, and sleep disorders . MCI presents as four phenotypes: amnestic single, amnestic multiple, non-amnestic single and non-amnestic multiple, and classification depends upon the affected cognitive domain. MCI is a common precursor to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders including dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular cognitive impairment .
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