A Systems Perspective in Examining Industry Clusters: Case Studies of Clusters in Russia and India
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© 2021 The Authors. Published by MDPI Publishing.
This article explores an examination of industry clusters from a systems perspective. We analyze Russia’s pharmaceutical clusters and India’s automobile clusters in terms of the systems concepts of holism, emergence, and open systems. We further consider the aspects of human capital investment and the availability of professional labor, infrastructure, private–public sector collaboration, support for funding and commercialization, as well as innovation corporate culture, when examining the institutional pillars supporting the development and growth of industry clusters within the national innovation ecosystems. The findings illustrate how industry clusters can be viewed from a systems perspective. We also highlight how the institutional pillars underpinning national innovation ecosystems can be applied to an industry cluster level, particularly in emerging countries. The article provides implications for theory and practice in the application of a systems perspective as a way to foster industry cluster innovation and promote a more effective national innovation ecosystem.
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