Engagement of the contralateral limb can enhance the facilitation of motor output by loud acoustic stimuli
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When intense sound is presented during light muscle contraction, inhibition of the corticomotoneuronal pathway is observed. During action preparation, this effect is reversed, with sound resulting in excitation of the corticomotoneuronal pathway. We investigated how the combined maintenance of a muscle contraction during preparation for a ballistic action impacts the magnitude of the facilitation of motor output by a loud acoustic stimulus (LAS), a phenomenon known as the StartReact effect. Participants executed ballistic wrist flexion movements and a LAS was presented simultaneously with the imperative signal in a subset of trials. We examined whether the force level or muscle used to maintain a contraction during preparation for the ballistic response impacted reaction time and/or the force of movements triggered by the LAS. These contractions were sustained either ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the ballistic response. The magnitude of facilitation by the LAS was greatest when low-force flexion contractions were maintained in the limb contralateral to the ballistic response during preparation. There was little change in facilitation when contractions recruited the contralateral extensor muscle or when they were sustained in the same limb that executed the ballistic response. We conclude that a larger network of neurons that may be engaged by a contralateral sustained contraction prior to initiation may be recruited by the LAS, further contributing to the motor output of the response. These findings may be particularly applicable in stroke rehabilitation, where engagement of the contralesional side may increase the benefits of a LAS to the functional recovery of movement.
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McInnes, Aaron ; Corti, Emily ; Tresilian, J.R.; Lipp, Ottmar ; Marinovic, Welber (2020)© 2019 Society for Psychophysiological Research Loud acoustic stimuli presented during movement preparation can shorten reaction time and increase response forcefulness. We examined how efferent connectivity of an agonist ...
Premovement inhibition can protect motor actions from interference by response irrelevant sensory stimulation.McInnes, Aaron Nicholas ; Lipp, Ottmar V ; Tresilian, James R; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Marinovic, Welber (2021)KEY POINTS: Suppression of corticospinal excitability is reliably observed during preparation for a range of motor actions, leading to the belief that this preparatory inhibition is a physiologically obligatory component ...
Marinovic, Welber; Milford, M.; Carroll, T.; Riek, S. (2015)The presentation of a loud acoustic stimulus during the preparation of motor actions can both speed movement initiation and increase response vigor. Several recent studies have explored this phenomenon as a means to ...