Nonlinear optimal feedback control for lunar module soft landing
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In this paper, the task of achieving the soft landing of a lunar module such that the fuel consumption and the flight time are minimized is formulated as an optimal control problem. The motion of the lunar module is described in a three dimensional coordinate system. We obtain the form of the optimal closed loop control law, where a feedback gain matrix is involved. It is then shown that this feedback gain matrix satisfies a Riccati-like matrix differential equation. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal closed loop control along the optimal trajectory, we present a practical method to calculate an approximate optimal feedback gain matrix, without having to solve an optimal control problem involving the complex Riccati-like matrix differential equation coupled with the original system dynamics. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is highly effective.
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