Rapid analysis of iodinated X-ray contrast media in secondary and tertiary treated wastewater by direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
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The iodinated x-ray contrast media (ICM) are the most widely administered intravascular pharmaceuticals and are known to persist in the aquatic environment. A rapid method using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (DI-LC-MS/MS) has been developed to measure eight ICM. These include iopamidol, iothalamic acid, diatrizoic acid, iohexol, iomeprol, iopromide, plus both ioxaglic acid and iodipamide, which have not previously reported in the literature. The LC-MS/MS fragmentation patterns obtained for each of the compounds are discussed and the fragments lost for each transition are identified. Matrix effects in post-RO water, MQ water, tap water and secondary effluent have also been investigated. The DI-LC-MS/MS method was validated on both secondary and tertiary treated wastewater, and applied to samples from an advanced activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a water recycling facility using microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in Perth, Western Australia. As well as providing information of the efficacy for RO to remove specific ICM, these results also represent the first values of ICM published in the literature for Australia.
Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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