Effects of a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet on brain lipid profiles in apolipoprotein E ε3 and ε4 knock-in mice
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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is important in facilitating the transport of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and sulfatides) and plays a fundamental role in normal lipid metabolism. High cholesterol levels increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high-fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on brain lipid profiles in 95 young and aged APOE ε3 and ε4 knock-in mice to determine whether diet leads to altered brain levels of a number of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol precursors, cholesterol, cholesterol oxidation products, and cholesterol esters. The results in this study revealed significant changes in lipid levels. The HFHC-enriched diet influenced the levels of cholesterol esters. A sharp increase in cholesterol ester levels, particularly in the aged APOE ε4 diet-enriched group, might be suggestive of abnormal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT) activity and/or levels. Age exerts appreciable effects on the brain lipidome, especially with regard to polar lipid species.
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