Early life rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease more severely in female mice
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© 2016 Taylor & Francis. Purpose: Recent studies have employed animal models to investigate links between rhinovirus infection and allergic airways disease, however, most do not involve early life infection, and none consider the effects of sex on responses. Materials and Methods: Here, we infected male and female mice with human rhinovirus 1B (or control) on day 7 of life. Mice were then subjected to 7 weeks of exposure to house-dust-mite prior to assessment of bronchoalveolar inflammation, serum antibodies, lung function, and responsiveness to methacholine. Results: There were significant differences in responses between males and females in most outcomes. In males, chronic house-dust-mite exposure increased bronchoalveolar inflammation, house-dust-mite specific IgG 1 and responsiveness of the lung parenchyma, however, there was no additional impact of rhinovirus infection. Conversely, in females, there were additive and synergistic effects of rhinovirus infection and house-dust-mite exposure on neutrophilia, airway resistance, and responsiveness of the lung parenchyma. Conclusions: We conclude that early life rhinovirus infection influences the development of house-dust-mite induced lung disease in female, but not male mice.
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