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dc.contributor.authorNizamuddin, S.
dc.contributor.authorJayakumar, N.
dc.contributor.authorSahu, J.
dc.contributor.authorGanesan, P.
dc.contributor.authorBhutto, A.
dc.contributor.authorMujawar, Mubarak
dc.identifier.citationNizamuddin, S. and Jayakumar, N. and Sahu, J. and Ganesan, P. and Bhutto, A. and Mujawar, M. 2015. Hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 32 (9): pp. 1789-1797.

Palm shell is one of the most plentiful wastes of the palm oil mill industry. This study identifies the capability of hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC) to convert palm shell into high energy hydrochar. The influence of reaction time and reaction temperature of the HTC process was investigated. The process parameters selected were temperature 200 °C to 240 °C, time 10 to 60min, and water to biomass ratio was fixed at 10 : 1 by weight %. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), elemental, proximate, Burner Emmett and Teller (BET), thermo-gravime tric (TGA) analyses were performed to characterize the product and the feed. The heating value (HHV) was increased from 12.24 MJ/ kg (raw palm shell) to 22.11 MJ/kg (hydrochar produced at 240 °C and 60 min). The hydrochar yield exhibited a higher degree inverse proportionality with temperature and reaction time. Elemental analysis revealed an increase in carbon percentage and a proportional decrease in hydrogen and oxygen contents which caused higher value of HHV. The dehydration and decarboxylation reactions take place at higher temperatures during HTC resulting in the increase of carbon and decrease in oxygen values of hydrochar. The FESEM results reveal that the structure of raw palm shell was decomposed by HTC process. The pores on the surface of hydrochar increased as compared to the raw palm shell.

dc.titleHydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.source.titleKorean Journal of Chemical Engineering
curtin.departmentCurtin Malaysia
curtin.accessStatusFulltext not available

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