Numerical studies on the laminar thermal-hydraulic efficiency of water-based Al2O3 nanofluid in circular and non-circular ducts
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This research presents the numerical results of laminar forced convective heat transfer performance and the flow behaviour for Al2O3-water nanofluid in circular, 2:1 rectangular, 4:1 rectangular and square ducts. The nanoparticles concentration studied were 0.01%, 0.09%, 0.13%, 0.25%, 0.51%, 1.00% and 4.00%. Single phase constant and temperature-dependent properties were employed. For the case of constant properties, the thermal performance and pressure drop increase with the increase of nanofluid concentration and Reynolds number. For the temperature-dependent properties, the Nusselt number and pressure drop also increase when the Reynolds number increases. However, there is a slight decrement in the Nusselt number and no significant pressure drop increment when the nanofluid concentration is increased from 0.01% to 1.00%. When the concentration is further increased to 4.00%, the Nusselt number and pressure drop increase. For the temperature-dependent model, lower thermal performance and pressure drop are identified when compared to those of the constant properties. The maximum Nusselt number enhancement and pressure drop increment occur at the concentration of 4.00% and Reynolds number of 2000. They are 25.43% and 945.69% as well as 4.86% and 117.01% for constant and temperature-dependent properties, respectively. The thermal-hydraulic efficiency of nanofluid is found to be not as good as the pure water.
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