Nitric oxide production and antioxidant function during viral infection of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi
MetadataShow full item record
Emiliania huxleyi is a globally important marine phytoplankton that is routinely infected by viruses. Understanding the controls on the growth and demise of E. huxleyi blooms is essential for predicting the biogeochemical fate of their organic carbon and nutrients. In this study, we show that the production of nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous, membrane-permeable free radical, is a hallmark of early-stage lytic infection in E. huxleyi by Coccolithoviruses, both in culture and in natural populations in the North Atlantic. Enhanced NO production was detected both intra- and extra-cellularly in laboratory cultures, and treatment of cells with an NO scavenger significantly reduced viral production. Pre-treatment of exponentially growing E. huxleyi cultures with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) prior to challenge with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) led to greater cell survival, suggesting that NO may have a cellular antioxidant function. Indeed, cell lysates generated from cultures treated with SNAP and undergoing infection displayed enhanced ability to detoxify H2O2. Lastly, we show that fluorescent indicators of cellular ROS, NO, and death, in combination with classic DNA- and lipid-based biomarkers of infection, can function as real-time diagnostic tools to identify and contextualize viral infection in natural E. huxleyi blooms.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Thamatrakoln, K.; Talmy, D.; Haramaty, L.; Maniscalco, C.; Latham, J.; Knowles, B.; Natale, F.; Coolen, Marco; Follows, M.; Bidle, K. (2018)New Phytologist Trust Viruses that infect photoautotrophs have a fundamental relationship with light, given the need for host resources. We investigated the role of light on Coccolithovirus (EhV) infection of the globally ...
Laber, C.; Hunter, J.; Carvalho, F.; Collins, J.; Hunter, E.; Schieler, B.; Boss, E.; More, K.; Frada, M.; Thamatrakoln, K.; Brown, C.; Haramaty, L.; Ossolinski, J.; Fredricks, H.; Nissimov, J.; Vandzura, R.; Sheyn, U.; Lehahn, Y.; Chant, R.; Martins, A.; Coolen, Marco; Vardi, A.; Ditullio, G.; Van Mooy, B.; Bidle, K. (2018)Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity 1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic ...
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are associated with IL-10: Production and clinical malaria in young childrenZhang, Guicheng; Manaca, M.; McNamara-Smith, M.; Mayor, A.; Nhabomba, A.; Berthoud, T.; Khoo, S.; Wiertsema, S.; Aguilar, R.; Barbosa, A.; Quintó, L.; Candelaria, P.; Schultz, E.; Hayden, C.; Goldblatt, J.; Guinovart, C.; Alonso, P.; LeSouëf, P.; Dobaño, C. (2012)The role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in malaria remains poorly characterized. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) whether genetic variants of the IL-10 gene influence IL-10 production and (ii) whether IL-10 ...