Characteristics of receiver-related biases between BDS-3 and BDS-2 for five frequencies including inter-system biases, differential code biases, and differential phase biases
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It is foreseeable that the BeiDou navigation satellite system with global coverage (BDS-3) and the BeiDou navigation satellite (regional) system (BDS-2) will coexist in the next decade. Care should be taken to minimize the adverse impact of the receiver-related biases, including inter-system biases (ISBs), differential code biases (DCB), and differential phase biases (DPB) on the positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) provided by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Therefore, it is important to ascertain the intrinsic characteristics of receiver-related biases, especially in the context of the combination of BDS-3 and BDS-2, which have some differences in their signal level. We present a method that enables time-wise retrieval of between-receiver ISBs, DCB, and DPB from multi-frequency multi-GNSS observations. With this method, the time-wise estimates of the receiver-related biases between BDS-3 and BDS-2 are determined using all five frequencies available in different receiver pairs. Three major findings are suggested based on our test results. First, code ISBs are significant on the two overlapping frequencies B1II and B2b/B2I between BDS-3 and BDS-2 for a baseline with non-identical receiver pairs, which disrupts the compatibility of the two constellations. Second, epoch-wise DCB estimates of the same type in BDS-3 and BDS-2 can show noticeable differences. Thus, it is unreasonable to treat them as one constellation in PNT applications. Third, the DPB of BDS-3 and BDS-2 may have significant short-term variations, which can be attributed to, on the one hand, receivers composing baselines, and on the other hand, frequencies.
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