In Vitro primary human airway epithelial whole exhaust exposure
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The method outlined in this article is a customization of the whole exhaust exposure method generated by Mullins et al. (2016) using reprogrammed primary human airway epithelial cells as described by Martinovich et al. (2017). It has been used successfully to generate recently published data (Landwehr et al. 2021). The goal was to generate an exhaust exposure model where exhaust is collected from a modern engine, real-world exhaust concentrations are used and relevant tissues exposed to assess the effects of multiple biodiesel exposures. Exhaust was generated, gently vacuumed into a dilution chamber where it was diluted 1/15 with air and then vacuumed into an incubator containing the primary cell cultures for exposure. Exhaust physico-chemical properties including combustion gas concentrations and particle spectra were then analyzed using a combustion gas analyzer and a Universal Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. 24 h after exposure, cellular viability and mediator release were measured using Annexin-V/PI staining and meditator multiplexing kits respectively. This method was generated to test biodiesel exhaust exposures but can be easily adapted for any type of engine exhaust exposure or even potentially other respirable environmental exposures such as woodsmoke. The main customization points for this method are: • Exhaust generated by a diesel engine equipped with EURO VI exhaust after treatment devices including diesel particulate filter and diesel oxidation catalyst. • The generated exhaust was diluted 1/15 with air to replicate real world exposure concentrations. • Used primary human airway epithelial cells obtained from bronchoscope brushings from multiple volunteers and reprogrammed to allow multiple, comparative exposures from the same individual.
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Fuel feedstock determines biodiesel exhaust toxicity in a human airway epithelial cell exposure modelLandwehr, Katherine R.; Hillas, J.; Mead-Hunter, Ryan ; Brooks, P.; King, Andrew; O'Leary, R.A.; Kicic, Anthony ; Mullins, Ben ; Larcombe, Alexander (2021)Background: Biodiesel is promoted as a sustainable replacement for commercial diesel. Biodiesel fuel and exhaust properties change depending on the base feedstock oil/fat used during creation. The aims of this study were, ...
Kicic, Anthony; Stevens, P.; Sutanto, E.; Kicic-Starcevich, E.; Ling, K.; Looi, K.; Martinovich, K.; Garratt, L.; Iosifidis, T.; Shaw, N.; Buckley, A.; Rigby, P.; Lannigan, F.; Knight, D.; Stick, S. (2016)© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Background: The airway epithelium forms an effective immune and physical barrier that is essential for protecting the lung from potentially harmful inhaled stimuli including viruses. Human ...
Soy biodiesel exhaust is more toxic than mineral diesel exhaust in primary human airway epithelial cellsLandwehr, K.R.; Hillas, J.; Mead-Hunter, Ryan ; O'Leary, R.A.; Kicic, Anthony ; Mullins, Ben ; Larcombe, Alexander (2019)© 2019 American Chemical Society. As global biodiesel production increases, there are concerns over the potential health impact of exposure to the exhaust, particularly in regard to young children who are at high risk ...