The effects of Ionic Gelation- Vibrational Jet Flow technique in fabrication of microcapsules incorporating ß-cell: applications in Type-1 Diabetes
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BACKGROUND: In recent studies, we have incorporated bile acid and polyelectrolytes into pancreatic ß-cell microcapsules and examined their cell viability and microcapsule morphology. Cell viability remained low post microencapsulation mainly due to cell leakage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to incorporate 3 colloids; ultrasonic gel (USG; 1%), polystyrenic sulphate (PSS; 0.1%) and polyallylamine (PAA; 3%) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; 4%). With the polymer sodium alginate (SA; 1.2%) and the copolymer poly L ornithine (PLO; 1%), and test the microcapsule properties as well as cell viability and functionality of the encapsulated ß-cells. This study also aimed to investigate the impact of UDCA on insulin production and the level of pro-inflammatory properties, post microencapsulation. METHOD: The pancreatic ß-cells, NIT-1 were encapsulated with a mixture of SA, PLO, USG, PSS and PAA without UDCA (control) or with UDCA (test). Both formulations and microcapsules were examined for mechanical strength, surface composition and thermal and chemical biocompatibilities. The microencapsulated cells were examined for bioenergetics, and production of inflammatory biomarkers. UDCA distribution within the microcapsules was also examined. RESULTS: Cell viability remained low after the addition of PSS, PAA and USG, while the incorporation of UDCA enhanced cell viability (p < 0.01), cellular bioenergetics and metabolism (p < 0.01), reduced the level of inflammatory biomarkers TNF-a (p < 0.01), IFN-? (p < 0.01) and IL-6 (p < 0.01) and thermal stability was maintained. CONCLUSION: The incorporation of PSS, PAA, USG and UDCA at 0.1:3:1:1 ratio respectively, produced stable and functional microcapsules suggesting potential applications in cell microencapsulation and diabetes treatment.
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